How is artemisinin produced?

How is artemisinin produced?

Artemisinin is naturally produced in trichomes of leaves. At the same time, transgenic hairy roots are considered a good source to harvest artemisinin. However, the absence of trichomes in hairy roots suggests that artemisinin biosynthesis is not limited to trichomes.

How do you extract artemisinin from Artemisia annua?

Artemisinin extraction was performed by immersing 0.1 g of sieved dry leaves to 10 mL of n-hexane, resulting in a plant material to solvent ratio of 1:100 to prevent solvent saturation. The extraction was performed at 69 °C for 1 h.

What is the source of artemisinin?

Artemisinins are derived from extracts of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) and are well established for the treatment of malaria, including highly drug-resistant strains.

What is precursor for artemisinin natural product?

artemisinic acid
Using synthetic biology, the metabolism of the microbe is engineered to produce artemisinic acid, a precursor to artemisinin. Starting from acetyl-CoA (an abundant product of the central metabolism (more…)

How do you isolate artemisinin?

The invention is a method for the production of artemisinin from the plant, Artemisia annua comprising the steps of extracting leaves of the plant with hexane, partitioning the hexane extract between hexane and acetonitrile, evaporation of the acetonitrile fraction followed by chromatographing the evaporated fraction …

Which mobile phase is used in artemisinin drug?

Analysis of artemisinin was achieved by UPLC using a Waters Acquity UPLC™ system fitted with a single quadrupole (SQ) detector (Waters Corporation, Milford, MA). The mobile phase was an isocratic system consisting of 60% v/v aqueous solution of 0.1% formic acid and 40% v/v acetonitrile.

What is the structure of artemisinin?

C15H22O5Artemisinin / Formula

Is artemisinin an alkaloid?

Artemisinin is the sesquiterpene alkaloid present in the aerial parts of the Asian plant of Artemisia annua L [21]. Artemisia annua herb commonly called “sweet wormwood” belongs to the Asteraceae family [22].

What is Artemisia annua extract?

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Artemisia annua L. has been used for millennia in Southeast Asia to treat “fever”. Many infectious microbial and viral diseases have been shown to respond to A. annua and communities around the world use the plant as a medicinal tea, especially for treating malaria.

How can we increase artemisinin production through bioengineering?

Another strategy in bioengineering is to block competing reactions such as the squalene synthase (SQS) and β-caryophyllene synthase, enzymes consuming FPP for sterol and β-caryophyllene biosynthesis. This has been proven to elevate artemisinin production by 3.14 and 5.49 fold, respectively ( Zhang et al., 2009; Chen et al., 2011 ).

How is artemisinin made from dihydroartemisinic acid?

Both routes suggested dihydroartemisinic acid as the final precursor to artemisinin. Dihydroartemisinic acid then undergoes photo-oxidation to produce dihydroartemisinic acid hydroperoxide. Ring expansion by the cleavage of hydroperoxide and a second oxygen-mediated hydroperoxidation finish the biosynthesis of artemisinin.

Is the supply of plant-derived artemisinin stable?

However, the supply of plant-derived artemisinin is unstable, resulting in shortages and price fluctuations, complicating production planning by ACT manufacturers. A stable source of affordable artemisinin is required.

Why is artemisinin so expensive to make?

Artemisinin is an important antimalarial drug, but, at present, the environmental and economic costs of its semi-synthetic production are relatively high. Most of these costs lie in the final chemical steps, which follow a complex acid- and photo-catalysed route with oxygenation by both singlet and triplet oxygen.