What happens when mitochondrial swelling?
Mitochondrial swelling causes the rupture of the mitochondrial outer membrane and the release of the pro-apoptotic proteins such as cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol (Petronilli et al., 2001).
What causes mitochondrial swelling?
During ischemia, calcium handling between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofilament is disrupted and calcium is diverted to the mitochondria causing swelling. Reperfusion, while essential for survival, reactivates energy transduction and contractility and causes the release of ROS and additional ionic imbalance.
What happens to mitochondria during apoptosis?
During apoptosis, Bax translocates to mitochondria (54, 140) and undergoes conformational changes to form oligomers (3), appearing as foci on mitochondria (Figure 2). In contrast, Bak constantly resides on mitochondria but does go through a series of conformational changes to oligomerize during apoptosis (45).
What reduces swelling of mitochondria?
Parkin prevents mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release in mitochondria-dependent cell death.
Is mitochondrial swelling irreversible?
A critical event that initiates mitochondria-mediated cell death is the excessive swelling of the mitochondrial matrix that occurs due to irreversible (high-conductance) PTP opening.
Why does calcium induce mitochondrial swelling?
In energized mitochondria, the mitochondrial membrane potential creates the driving force for calcium to accumulate in the mitochondrial matrix. The accumulation and growth of these complexes induces mitochondrial swelling that leads to outer membrane rupture, inner membrane fragmentation and cyt. c release.
Does inflammation cause mitochondrial dysfunction?
Experimental evidence supports an intricate association between inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction as main contributors of neurological diseases.
What is the difference between apoptosis and necrosis?
Apoptosis is described as an active, programmed process of autonomous cellular dismantling that avoids eliciting inflammation. Necrosis has been characterized as passive, accidental cell death resulting from environmental perturbations with uncontrolled release of inflammatory cellular contents.
Can mitochondria burst?
This phenomenon referred to as mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) refers to a permeabilized inner membrane that originates a large swelling in the mitochondrial matrix, which distends the outer membrane until it ruptures.
How does calcium increase mitochondrial permeability?
It is widely hypothesized that an increase in calcium and reactive oxygen species activate a large conductance channel in the inner mitochondrial membrane known as the PTP (permeability transition pore) and that opening of this pore leads to necroptosis, a regulated form of necrotic cell death.