What is erosion and its causes?
Erosion is the geological process in which earthen materials are worn away and transported by natural forces such as wind or water. A similar process, weathering, breaks down or dissolves rock, but does not involve movement. Most erosion is performed by liquid water, wind, or ice (usually in the form of a glacier).
What is soil erosion in simple terms?
Soil erosion is a naturally occurring process that affects all landforms. In agriculture, soil erosion refers to the wearing away of a field’s topsoil by the natural physical forces of water (Figure 1) and wind (Figure 2) or through forces associated with farming activities such as tillage.
What are the harmful effects of soil erosion?
The effects of soil erosion go beyond the loss of fertile land. It has led to increased pollution and sedimentation in streams and rivers, clogging these waterways and causing declines in fish and other species. And degraded lands are also often less able to hold onto water, which can worsen flooding.
What are the 5 types of water erosion?
Different Types Of Water Erosion
- Splash Erosion. This is the first stage in the erosion process that is caused by rain.
- Sheet Erosion.
- Rill Erosion.
- Gully Erosion.
- Tunnel Erosion.
- Impact On Flora.
- Impact On Fauna.
What are the main causes of soil erosion?
The Main Causes And Impacts Of Soil Erosion
- Deforestation for Agriculture Is One of the Top Causes of Soil Erosion.
- Soil Erosion is Also Caused by Overgrazing, Which Causes Floods too.
- Agrochemicals Cause Soil Erosion and Degradation.
- Construction and Recreational Activities.
What are effects of erosion?
Other effects of erosion include increased flooding, increased sedimentation in rivers and streams, loss of soil nutrients’ and soil degradation, and, in extreme cases, desertification. It becomes harder to grow crops on eroded soils and local flora and fauna typically suffer.
What is an example of wind erosion?
Wind erosion is also a natural process. The large parallel sand dunes in south-west Queensland, including the Simpson Desert National Park, are the result of wind erosion and deposition over thousands of years. These dunes are constantly moving and roads and tracks can be covered by drifting sands in only a few hours.
What are the causes erosion?
The agents of soil erosion are the same as the agents of all types of erosion: water, wind, ice, or gravity. Running water is the leading cause of soil erosion, because water is abundant and has a lot of power. Wind is also a leading cause of soil erosion because wind can pick up soil and blow it far away.
What is an example of water erosion?
So, water erosion is the detachment and transport of soil material by water. For example, when humans cut down too many trees and plants, the soil remains bare and loose and hence more easily moved by water. Water erosion wears away the surface of the earth.
How can class 9 soil erosion be prevented?
Preventive methods of soil erosion (i) Afforestation Planting more trees reduces soil erosion. (ii) Contour Ploughing Ploughing land in furrows across the natural slope of the land helps trap water and prevent the washing away of top soil along with it.
What is the most important factor in erosion?
The most important erosion factors include the climatic, hydrological, topographic, soil, geological and vegetation conditions, as well as the economic and technical and the socioeconomic conditions of the human society.
What is soil erosion and types?
Rainfall and surface runoff Rainfall, and the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion. In splash erosion, the impact of a falling raindrop creates a small crater in the soil, ejecting soil particles.
What is soil erosion in one line?
Soil erosion is the washing or blowing away (by water or wind) of the top layer of soil (dirt). This is a serious problem for farmers. If the soil has eroded, the crops that make food will not grow very well.
How can you prevent soil erosion?
The various methods for preventing and reducing soil erosion are:
- Preventing excessive grazing.
- Prevention of deforestation.
- Plantation of trees and plants.
- Mulch matting can be used to reduce erosion on the slopes.
- Put a series of fibre logs to prevent any water or soil from washing away.
What are the two types of wind erosion?
Wind erosion uses two main mechanics: abrasion and deflation. Deflation is further broken down into three categories: surface creep, saltation and suspension.
What is a result of water erosion?
Erosion of shallow soils can decrease the thickness of the root zone and the amount of air, water, and nutrients available to plants. The sediment removed by erosion can bury plants and roads; accumulate in streams, rivers, and reservoirs; and degrade water quality.
What is the process of wind erosion?
Wind erosion is a natural process that moves soil from one location to another by wind power. Wind erosion can be caused by a light wind that rolls soil particles along the surface through to a strong wind that lifts a large volume of soil particles into the air to create dust storms.
What is the cause and effect of soil erosion?
Soil erosion decreases soil fertility, which can negatively affect crop yields. It also sends soil-laden water downstream, which can create heavy layers of sediment that prevent streams and rivers from flowing smoothly and can eventually lead to flooding. Once soil erosion occurs, it is more likely to happen again.
What is soil erosion explain its types?
The loss of soil cover due to natural agents like wind and running water is called soil erosion. Types of Soil Erosion : (i) Sheet Erosion : When the top layer of the soil is removed over a large area by the running water, it is called as sheet erosion. (ii) Rill Erosion : This is the second stage of sheet erosion.
What are the 4 types of water erosion?
There are several different types of water erosion, but they can generally be grouped into four main types. These are inter-rill erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion, and streambank erosion. Inter-rill erosion, also known as raindrop erosion, is the movement of soil by rainfall and its resulting surface flow.