# What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of bag of words?

## What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of bag of words?

Bag of words leads to a high dimensional feature vector due to large size of Vocabulary, V. Bag of words doesn’t leverage co-occurrence statistics between words. In other words, it assumes all words are independent of each other.

What is a TfidfVectorizer?

TF-IDF is an abbreviation for Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency. This is very common algorithm to transform text into a meaningful representation of numbers which is used to fit machine algorithm for prediction.

### What is TF-IDF transformer?

Tf means term-frequency while tf-idf means term-frequency times inverse document-frequency. The effect of adding “1” to the idf in the equation above is that terms with zero idf, i.e., terms that occur in all documents in a training set, will not be entirely ignored.

Why do we use Fit_transform?

fit_transform() is used on the training data so that we can scale the training data and also learn the scaling parameters of that data. Here, the model built by us will learn the mean and variance of the features of the training set. These learned parameters are then used to scale our test data.

#### What is a limitation of TF IDF?

However, TF-IDF has several limitations: – It computes document similarity directly in the word-count space, which may be slow for large vocabularies. – It assumes that the counts of different words provide independent evidence of similarity. – It makes no use of semantic similarities between words.

How do I use TF-IDF in Python?

Using Python to calculate TF-IDF. Lets now code TF-IDF in Python from scratch. After that, we will see how we can use sklearn to automate the process. The function computeTF computes the TF score for each word in the corpus, by document.

## Does CountVectorizer remove stop words?

If ‘english’, a built-in stop word list for English is used. If a list, that list is assumed to contain stop words, all of which will be removed from the resulting tokens. Only applies if analyzer == ‘word’ .

What does Bigram mean?

A bigram or digram is a sequence of two adjacent elements from a string of tokens, which are typically letters, syllables, or words. A bigram is an n-gram for n=2. Head word bigrams are gappy bigrams with an explicit dependency relationship.

### What does a high TF-IDF value mean?

Put simply, the higher the TF*IDF score (weight), the rarer the term and vice versa. The TF*IDF algorithm is used to weigh a keyword in any content and assign importance to that keyword based on the number of times it appears in the document.

How is Bigram calculated?

Probability Estimation For example, to compute a particular bigram probability of a word y given a previous word x, you can determine the count of the bigram C(xy) and normalize it by the sum of all the bigrams that share the same first-word x.

#### What is N gram in NLP?

In the fields of computational linguistics and probability, an n-gram is a contiguous sequence of n items from a given sample of text or speech. The items can be phonemes, syllables, letters, words or base pairs according to the application. The n-grams typically are collected from a text or speech corpus.

Is TF-IDF bag of words?

Bag of Words just creates a set of vectors containing the count of word occurrences in the document (reviews), while the TF-IDF model contains information on the more important words and the less important ones as well. However, TF-IDF usually performs better in machine learning models.

## What is Vectorizer in Python?

Vectorization is a technique to implement arrays without the use of loops. Using a function instead can help in minimizing the running time and execution time of code efficiently.

What is Max features in CountVectorizer?

Set the parameter ngram_range=(a,b) where a is the minimum and b is the maximum size of ngrams you want to include in your features. The default ngram_range is (1,1). In a recent project where I modeled job postings online, I found that including 2-grams as features boosted my model’s predictive power significantly.

### What is stop words removal?

In computing, stop words are words which are filtered out before or after processing of natural language data (text). Other search engines remove some of the most common words—including lexical words, such as “want”—from a query in order to improve performance.

Is maximizing probability same as minimizing perplexity?

Perplexity is a function of the probability of the sentence. The meaning of the inversion in perplexity means that whenever we minimize the perplexity we maximize the probability.