What is nickel pig iron used for?
Nickel pig iron (NPI) is a low grade ferronickel invented in China as a cheaper alternative to pure nickel for the production of stainless steel. The production process of nickel pig iron utilizes laterite nickel ores instead of pure nickel sold on the world market.
What is ferronickel used for?
The ferronickel is used directly for making stainless steel and other ferrous alloys.
What is RKEF?
Industrially, the pyrometallurgical treatment of laterites is mostly accomplished with a well-established method, namely, the rotary kiln–electric arc furnace (RKEF) process, which includes three main operations—calcination, prereduction, and smelting—followed by further refining for the removal of impurities from the …
How do you make ferronickel?
Usually, primary ferronickel is obtained by first calcining the iron- and nickel-bearing laterite ore in a kiln and then smelting the calcined ore in an electric furnace. The nickel content of marketable ferroalloy typically ranges from 19% to 38%.
Can nickel pig iron be used for batteries?
Up until now the nickel pig iron (NPI) product (15% nickel) it produced went solely to the stainless steel market as it is not suitable for batteries. According to commodity consultant Roskill, nickel demand from the stainless steel sector was about 1.55 million tonnes in 2020 while batteries absorbed 143,000 tonnes.
What is the difference between nickel and ferronickel?
Nickel metal is produced from sulfidic and lateritic ores, undergoing either a pyro- or hydrometallurgical treatment followed by refining. Ferronickel predominantly originates from lateritic ores which is converted into an impure product with a nickel content of around 30% and an iron content of up to 70%.
Is ferronickel magnetic?
Used in the production of stainless steel and nickel alloy steels. Ferronickel is primarily used in the manufacture of Austenitic stainless steels (known as 200 and 300 series). These are non-magnetic and contain between 8.5%-25% nickel, enhancing their corrosion resistance.
How do you refine a nickel?
Through further refining a 95% pure nickel can be obtained by using the fluid bed roasting technique. The use of electric cells allows for a better refining process. The electrical cells equipped with inert cathodes removes the final impurities from the nickel, resulting in a high quality nickel.
What is nickel matte?
Nickel matte: An intermediate product in the metallurgical processes with a nickel content varying between 30-60%. First use of nickel: Conversion of nickel into intermediate products, such as stainless steel and alloys, which form the basis for nickel- containing end use goods.
How do you smelt nickel?
In the process, nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide at around 40–80 °C to form nickel carbonyl in the presence of a sulfur catalyst. Iron gives iron pentacarbonyl, too, but this reaction is slow. If necessary, the nickel may be separated by distillation.