How can you tell the difference between LPAI and HPAI?

How can you tell the difference between LPAI and HPAI?

A difference exists in the virus classification; one is low pathogenic (LPAI) and the other is highly pathogenic (HPAI). Pathogenicity refers to the ability of the virus to produce disease. HPAI H5N1, often referred to as the “Asian” H5N1, is the type causing worldwide concern.

What causes HPAI?

The HPAI H5 viruses that have infected birds in the United States have been caused by three subtypes to date: H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses.

What is HPAI influenza?

Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus occurs mainly in birds and is highly contagious among them. HPAI Asian H5N1 is especially deadly for poultry. The virus was first detected in 1996 in geese in China.

What is H5Nx?

Abstract. Emergence and intercontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5Nx) virus clade 2.3. 4.4 is unprecedented. H5N8 and H5N2 viruses have caused major economic losses in the poultry industry in Europe and North America, and lethal human infections with H5N6 virus have occurred in Asia.

What does H1N1 stand for?

The influenza type A virus, known as H1N1 is a respiratory infection that was popularly named “swine flu.” The virus was first recognized in April 2009 and spread quickly to 74 countries worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the virus a global pandemic.

What is the basis of influenza virus typing and subtype What are the types?

Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). There are 18 different hemagglutinin subtypes and 11 different neuraminidase subtypes (H1 through H18 and N1 through N11, respectively).

What is HPAI in birds?

Highly pathogenic* avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus occurs mainly in birds, is highly contagious among birds, and can be deadly, especially in domestic poultry. Since December 2003, an Asian HPAI H5N1 virus has resulted in high mortality in poultry and wild birds in Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Africa.

What are the signs of bird flu?

Dullness, a loss of appetite, depression, coughing, nasal and ocular discharge, swelling of the face, nervous signs such as paralysis and sometimes green diarrhoea are all also clinical signs. However, birds infected with ‘low path’ Avian Influenza may not show any signs at all.

Is H5N1 a pandemic?

The global spread of H5N1 influenza in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. While other H5N1 influenza strains are known, they are significantly different on a genetic level from a recent, highly pathogenic, emergent strain of H5N1, which was able to achieve hitherto unprecedented global spread in 2008.

What are the H and N of flu?

Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N).

What does hemagglutinin and neuraminidase do?

Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, which is responsible for virus attachment, interacts with the fusion protein in a virus type-specific manner to induce efficient membrane fusion.

What are the 3 influenza A subtypes?

What are the symptoms of HPAI in chickens?

Signs of HPAI in poultry can include sudden death; lack of energy, appetite, and coordination; purple discoloration or swelling of various body parts; diarrhea; nasal discharge; coughing; sneezing; and reduced egg production, or soft-shelled or misshapen eggs.

How is shock diagnosed in hypoperfusion?

Shock is commonly diagnosed when signs of hypoperfusion are associated with low or declining blood pressure. Shock may result from a number of disease processes, including pump failure (cardiogenic), loss of intravascular volume (hypovolemic), failure of vasoregulation (distributive), or obstruction to blood flow (obstructive).

What are the signs and symptoms of shock?

. Altered mental status (eg, lethargy, confusion, somnolence) is a common sign of shock. The hands and feet are pale, cool, clammy, and often cyanotic, as are the earlobes, nose, and nail beds. Capillary filling time is prolonged, and, except in distributive shock, the skin appears grayish or dusky and moist.

What happens if you go into shock at the Mayo Clinic?

By Mayo Clinic Staff. Shock may result from trauma, heatstroke, blood loss, an allergic reaction, severe infection, poisoning, severe burns or other causes. When a person is in shock, his or her organs aren’t getting enough blood or oxygen. If untreated, this can lead to permanent organ damage or even death.