Where is tonotopic organization found in the auditory system?
Introduction. Tonotopy is a key organizational feature of the vertebrate auditory system. Also referred to as cochleotopy, it arises in the cochlea of the inner ear, which acts as a bank of parallel filters that are sharply tuned to neighboring frequencies (von Bekesy 1949).
What establishes the tonotopic arrangement of the auditory system?
Functionally, the representation of frequency is the most robust topographically distributed physiologic feature known in auditory cortex. Tonotopic gradients of areas within auditory cortex as established by microelectrode recordings and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (see text).
What causes tonotopic organization?
This organization begins in the cochlea, where different frequencies tend to cause maximal vibration at different places along the basilar membrane and thus stimulate different hair cells. …
What is the tonotopic organization within the cochlea?
The cochlea is a snail-shaped organ which has many tiny receptor hair cells embedded in a basilar membrane which respond to certain frequencies of sound. This is known as tonotopic organization in which the base of the membrane in the cochlea responds to higher pitches and the apex responds to lower pitches.
What is tonotopic map in auditory cortex?
Tonotopic maps are a striking feature of the mammalian auditory cortex and underlie the representation of complex sounds, such as speech. This spatial separation of frequencies originates in the inner ear, where high frequencies are processed in the base of the cochlea and low frequencies in the apex.
Why is tonotopic organization important?
Tonotopic position determines the structure of hair bundles in the cochlea. The height of hair bundles increases from base to apex and the number of stereocilia decreases (i.e. hair cells located at the base of the cochlea contain more stereo cilia than those located at the apex).
What is tonotopic organization quizlet?
Tonotopic organization. The systematic mapping of. sound frequency to the place of maximum stimulation. within the auditory system that begins in the cochlea and is preserved through the auditory cortex.
What does tonotopic map represent?
Tonotopic organization expresses gradients in the representation (maps) of sound properties. Such properties are frequency of tones, frequency ratios between harmonics and the pitch of complex sounds, speed and direction of frequency sweeps, sound intensity and location of sound in space.
What is the relationship between the basilar membrane and tonotopic organization?
What is the relationship between the basilar membrane and tonotopic organization? the basilar membrane is organized tonotopically – meaning each segment has a frequency of greatest sensitivity. essentially the 4 main tonotopic areas move from closest to the oval window (high frequency) to farthest away (low frequency).
Where is the auditory cortex located?
superior temporal gyrus
The human auditory cortex is situated on the supratemporal plane, and comprises the superior two-thirds of the superior temporal gyrus (STG; Celesia, 1976; Galaburda and Sanides, 1980; Rivier and Clarke, 1997).
How is the auditory cortex organized?
The primary auditory cortex is organized in vertical columns with the cells in each column sensitive to the same main sound frequency. Adjacent columns are organized according to the tonotopic representation (from lower frequency to higher frequency moving from posterior to anterior).
What is the function of the auditory cortex?
(4) The auditory cortex of the human brain receives and processes the contents of sounds, voices, or music.