How is papilledema different from papillitis?
Papillitis can be differentiated from papilledema by an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus Gunn pupil), by its greater effect in decreasing visual acuity and color vision, and by the presence of a central scotoma. Papilledema that is not yet chronic will not have as dramatic an effect on vision.
What causes optic nerve papillitis?
Papillitis may be idiopathic, infectious, due to ischemia (acute ischemic optic neuropathy or AION), or due to a tumor (optic nerve or sphenoid wing meningioma, glioma, or parasellar process). Compressive lesions can also cause cavitation (optic nerve cupping) or shunt vessels on the surface of the disc.
What are the causes of papilledema?
Because there’s a limited amount of space, when tissues swell, something grows, or there’s more liquid than normal, the pressure inside goes up and, in turn, can cause papilledema. That may happen because of: A head injury. A brain or spinal cord tumor.
How do you treat papillitis?
Treatment of transient lingual papillitis
- Salt water mouth rinses.
- Cold fluids.
- Soothing foods such as yoghurt.
- Antiseptic or local anaesthetic mouthwashes.
- Topical steroids.
How is papillitis treated?
What is the treatment for papilledema?
Treatment of Papilledema Papilledema that occurs as a result of idiopathic intracranial hypertension can be treated with weight loss and a diuretic. If unsuccessful, surgical procedures can be done. An infection, if bacterial, can be treated with antibiotics. A brain abscess is drained, and antibiotics are given.
What are the stages of papilledema?
Papilledema can be graded using the Frisén scale but remains subjective, as follows: Stage 0 is a normal optic disc. Stage 1 papilledema is a C-shaped halo of disc edema with preservation of the temporal disc. Stage 2 papilledema is a circumferential halo of edema on the optic disc.
Is Kennedy’s disease fatal?
Kennedy’s disease is a rare inherited neuromuscular disorder that causes progressive weakening and wasting of the muscles, particularly the arms and legs. Other major symptoms include severe cramps and problems with speech and swallowing. The disease progresses slowly, and life expectancy is usually normal.
Why does Foster Kennedy have contralateral papilledema?
The lack of colour is more marked in the temporal area (arrows). These findings suggested Foster Kennedy syndrome, in which an anterior intracranial mass directly compresses the ipsilateral optic nerve, causing atrophy, and increases intracranial pressure, which results in contralateral papilledema.