Which techniques can be used for bonding wafers?

Which techniques can be used for bonding wafers?


  • Direct bonding.
  • Surface activated bonding.
  • Plasma activated bonding.
  • Anodic bonding.
  • Eutectic bonding.
  • Glass frit bonding.
  • Adhesive bonding.
  • Thermocompression bonding.

What do silicon wafers do?

Silicon wafer is a material used for producing semiconductors, which can be found in all types of electronic devices that improve the lives of people. Silicon comes second as the most common element in the universe; it is mostly used as a semiconductor in the technology and electronic sector.

How does a wafer work?

In electronics, a wafer (also called a slice or substrate) is a thin slice of semiconductor, such as a crystalline silicon (c-Si), used for the fabrication of integrated circuits and, in photovoltaics, to manufacture solar cells. The wafer serves as the substrate for microelectronic devices built in and upon the wafer.

Why do companies issue hybrid securities?

Nowadays, companies may also choose to issue hybrids to increase their financial flexibility or to diversify and widen their investor bases. Unlike dividends, the interest paid on hybrids can be tax deductible for the company, depending on the jurisdiction.

What is wafer bonding?

▪ Abstract When mirror-polished, flat, and clean wafers of almost any material are brought into contact at room temperature, they are locally attracted to each other by van der Waals forces and adhere or bond. This phenomenon is referred to as wafer bonding.

How long does it take for a wafer to bond to solder?

Wafer bonding with soft solder is a very fast process, as the necessary bond temperature is low and the alloy is already formed. The solder wetting kinetics takes place within seconds, so a hold time at peak bond temperature of a few minutes is sufficient to secure a homogeneous temperature distribution over the wafer pair.

How are wafers cleaned for hybrid bonding?

In preparation for the hybrid bonding process itself, plasma activation in combination with deionized water-based wafer cleaning is used for substrate preparation on both the collective die carrier and target wafers. The carrier wafer is then flipped and aligned with the target wafer using an EVG SmartView NT optical aligner.

What is the best method for hydrophilic direct wafer bonding?

The most common methods used for low-temperature hydrophilic direct wafer bonding are based on plasma. In these methods the wafer surface or surfaces is/are activated with a short plasma treatment prior to the wafer contacting. Numerous plasma processes have been reported for bond strengthening.