What is the epidemiology of Lyme disease?

What is the epidemiology of Lyme disease?

Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne illness in North America and Europe. The etiologic agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is transmitted to humans by certain species of Ixodes ticks, which are found widely in temperate regions of the Northern hemisphere. Clinical features are diverse, but death is rare.

What is the disease deer ticks can transmit to humans?

Anaplasmosis, formerly known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is a bacterial disease that was first recognized in Minnesota in the early 1990s. It is transmitted to people by blacklegged ticks (deer ticks), the same ticks that transmit Lyme disease. Anaplasmosis is less common than Lyme disease, however.

Is disease transmission possible through a tick bite?

Lyme disease is transmitted following the bite of certain types of ticks if they have been infected with particular Borrelia bacteria. Only some species of ticks are capable of being infected by the Borrelia bacteria and only these infected ticks can pass the infection on to humans.

How are the diseases carried by ticks transmitted?

Tick-borne pathogens can be passed to humans by the bite of infected ticks. Ticks can be infected with bacteria, viruses, or parasites.

Is Lyme disease endemic or epidemic?

An Emerging Epidemic Lyme disease is one of the fastest growing infectious diseases in the country and one of the most difficult to diagnose. Experts in the medical and scientific community, as well as key legislators, have deemed Lyme disease an epidemic … a national public health crisis … and a growing threat.

Is Lyme disease a reportable disease?

Lyme disease has been a nationally notifiable condition in the United States since 1991. Reports of Lyme disease are collected and verified by state and local health departments in accordance with their legal mandate and surveillance practices.

How long does a tick have to be attached to transmit Lyme disease?

Even if a tick is attached, it must have taken a blood meal to transmit Lyme disease. At least 36 to 48 hours of feeding is typically required for a tick to have fed and then transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. After this amount of time, the tick will be engorged (full of blood).

Do all ticks carry diseases?

Ticks prefer to live in wooded areas, low-growing grasslands, and yards. Not all ticks carry the Lyme disease bacteria. Depending on the location, anywhere from less than 1% to more than 50% of the ticks are infected with it. While most tick bites are harmless, several species can cause life-threatening diseases.

Is Lyme disease becoming an epidemic?

Quiet Epidemic The CDC has announced that the number of people diagnosed each year with Lyme disease has climbed to nearly half a million, specifically 476,000, which is a jump of 59% over the 300,000 estimate previously listed on the CDC’s website.

Is Lyme disease worldwide?

Lyme disease exists throughout much of the world, including Canada, Europe, and Asia. Occasionally, cases are reported in more tropical locales, and Lyme disease may exist in Australia.

What diseases do ticks carry in the United States?

Tickborne Diseases of the United States. In the United States, some ticks carry pathogens that can cause human disease, including: Anaplasmosis is transmitted to humans by tick bites primarily from the blacklegged tick ( Ixodes scapularis) in the northeastern and upper midwestern U.S. and the western blacklegged tick ( Ixodes pacificus)…

How long does it take for a tick to transmit disease?

Once infected, a tick can transmit infection throughout its life. If you remove a tick quickly (within 24 hours), you can greatly reduce your chances of getting Lyme disease. It takes some time for the Lyme disease-causing bacteria to move from the tick to the host.

Where do blacklegged ticks spread disease?

The blacklegged tick (or deer tick, Ixodes scapularis) spreads the disease in the northeastern, mid-Atlantic, and north-central United States. The western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus) spreads the disease on the Pacific Coast.

What causes Colorado tick fever and ehrlichiosis?

Colorado tick fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni). It occurs in the the Rocky Mountain states at elevations of 4,000 to 10,500 feet. Ehrlichiosis is transmitted to humans by the lone star tick ( Ambylomma americanum ), found primarily in the southcentral and eastern U.S.